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Reading List August 16, 2021

Coltrane. Monk. Aretha.

A Black music reading list.

Today marks three years since the passing of Aretha Franklin. Though she’s known as the “Queen of Soul,” Aretha was more than this, argues BR contributing arts editor Ed Pavlić. “She was a Black prophet,” as Amazing Grace, the long-lost film of her gospel album of the same name, reveals. Indeed, after viewing the movie, Reverend William Barber II told Variety that Aretha was “singing from not only her physical belly, but from the depths of history . . . not only out of her soul but out of the soul of the people.”

Pavlić goes on to note that to fully appreciate Amazing Grace one needs “a lesson in the origins of Black music, a tradition rich with complex and at times contradictory cultural and political power.” With this in mind, today’s reading list takes a short tour through this history: from the musician who arguably did more than any other to build the canon of American folk song, to Franklin’s contemporaries like Marvin Gaye—here remembered by “Sexual Healing” co-writer David Ritz—via Black feminist blues and Bessie Smith.

Many pieces in today’s list focus on Jazz, making mention of household names such as Thelonious MonkJohn Coltrane, and other members of the “Sacred Black Masculine.” But less well-remembered artists also feature, with a recent essay exploring the seminal civil rights album We Insist!  from Max Roach, Abbey Lincoln, and Oscar Brown, Jr. “They refused the choice between great art and political art,” Michael Reagan writes, “embracing a new unity of social context, personal expression, and experimentation. . . . It is a lasting testament to the open expanse of struggle, the boundless horizon of Black liberation.”

But as renowned jazz musician Vijay Iyer noted in an interview with Robin D. G. Kelley, this liberatory legacy has been warped, repackaged as both fashionable and something to maintain distance from. “I think many people think I’m cool because of my proximity to Blackness—but also because I’m not actually Black, you know?” Iyer comments. “And that’s inextricable from the history of Black music in the United States being sold by white companies and appropriated by non-Black people, or inhabited in different ways by non-Black people, which is this sort of way of managing and selling proximity to Blackness without the guilt.”

Rap also has a fraught cultural heritage, as several authors in our archive have examined. In 1991, fresh from her coining of the idea of “intersectionality,” legal scholar Kimberlé W. Crenshaw turned to our pages to apply the concept to the controversy surrounding the hip hop group 2 Live Crew, then facing prosecution for their misogynistic lyrics. While recognizing that their album “objectified Black women and represented them as legitimate targets for sexual violence,” Crenshaw argued that a Black feminist response “must also consider whether an exclusive focus on issues of gender risks overlooking aspects of the prosecution of 2 Live Crew that raise serious questions of racism.”

Two decades later and the criminalization of Black art has still not improved. Indeed, rap lyrics now appear in murder and assault trials where prosecutors try and use them to win cases despite flimsy evidence. “No other art form, musical or otherwise, is treated this way in court,” remarked lawyer Andrea L. Dennis and liberal arts scholar Erik Nielson in a 2019 essay. “Society has long viewed Black art as a threat and turned to the criminal justice system to control Black speech and creative endeavors.”

But all is not lost. As last summer’s rebellions show, Black popular music is also being recognized for its ability to shape everyday activism, protest, and resistance, utilizing digital platforms such as TikTok to create communities of mutually invested participants. Looking toward the future, we end with two essays that focus on the contributions made to Afrofuturist culture by women musicians—an important task, given that discussions of Afrofuturism often privilege male figures. Combining themes of cyberspace and science with celebrations of Blackness and queerness, artists like Janelle Monáe and Labelle “beam a progressive vision of an emancipated future.”

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Vijay Iyer Robin D. G. Kelley

Robin D. G. Kelley talks with musician Vijay Iyer about systems of oppression, the responsibility of artists, and how jazz sells proximity to blackness to white people.

Ed Pavlic Aretha Franklin Amazing Grace
Ed Pavlić

‘Amazing Grace,’ the long-lost film of Franklin’s gospel album, offers a lesson in the deep connections between gospel and soul music.

Tyehimba Jess
Tyehimba Jess

The Sacred Black Masculine in My Life

Screen Shot 2019-05-24 at 12
Scott Saul

A review of two books on Coltrane.

Michael Reagan

Sixty years ago, a pathbreaking jazz album from Max Roach, Abbey Lincoln, and Oscar Brown, Jr., fused politics and art in the fight for Black liberation. Black artists are taking similar strides today.

David Ritz Marvin Gaye
David Ritz

Grammy winner David Ritz, who cowrote Marvin Gaye’s legendary “Sexual Healing,” recalls how the song emerged from Gaye’s struggles with faith, drug addiction, and childhood abuse.

Emily Lordi

A Sun Ra tribute concert by a member of the pathbreaking pop group Labelle leads to reflections on how Black women artists and scientists have often been at the vanguard of their disciplines—though most are still awaiting due recognition.

microphone-music-evening-event
Byrd McDaniel

Through online fan communities and digital platforms like TikTok, popular music is finding powerful new ways to shape everyday activism, protest, and resistance.

Douglas Shadle

The field is reckoning with a long legacy of racial exclusion, despite its universalist claims.

monae1
Christopher Lebron

What Afrofuturism can teach us about surviving Trump.

byrne-feature
Dave Byrne

A new collection of Lead Belly's recordings.

Thelonious Monk
Scott Saul

Robin D.G. Kelley’s Thelonious Monk: The Life and Times of an American Original restores the pianist and composer to the history he lived through.

Rap on Trial Erik Nielson Andrea Dennis
Erik Nielson Andrea L. Dennis

Prosecutors use defendants’ rap lyrics to win cases despite the flimsiest evidence. Behind this rests a unique paranoia around hip hop and a long history of criminalizing black art. 

Bessiesmith3
Jonathan Gill

Invitations to danger and salvation that makes the blues the blues.

crenshaw
Kimberlé W. Crenshaw

Black feminism and the 2 Live Crew.

Byrne---Loc1-feature
Dave Byrne

The Making of an American Folk Song

Our weekly themed Reading Lists compile the best of Boston Review’s archive. Previews are delivered to members every Sunday. Become a member to receive them ahead of the crowd.

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