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  [1] David Himmelstein, Steffie Woolhandler, and the Writing Committee of the Working Group on Program Design, "A National Health Program for the United States: A Physician's Proposal," New England Journal of Medicine 320 (January 1989):102-108. See also K. Grumbach, T. Bodenheimer, D. Himmelstein, and S. Woolhandler, "Liberal Benefits, Conservative Spending: The Physicians for a National Health Program Proposal," Journal of the American Medical Association 265 (May 1991): 2549-54.

[2] U. S. General Accounting Office, Canadian Health Insurance: Lessons for the United States, (Washington: GAO, June 1991), p.7.

[3] S. Woolhandler, D. Himmelstein, J. Lewontin, "Administrative Costs in U.S. Hospitals," New England Journal Medicine 329 (August 1993):400-03.

[4] V.R. Fuchs, T.S. Hahn, "How Does Canada Do It? A Comparison of Expenditures for Physicians' Services in the United States and Canada," New England Journal of Medicine 323 (1990): 884-90, 1990.

[5] Congressional Budget Office, American Health Security Act of 1993: H.R. 1200 (Washington, D.C.: CBO, December 16, 1993).

[6] S. Woolhandler and D. Himmelstein, "Socialized Medicine is Good Business," In These Times, January 25, 1992.

[7] Woolhandler and Himmelstein, "Socialized Medicine is Good Business," In These Times. Authors personal communication with Giles Fortin and Lothar W. Rehmer, Health Information Division, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Canada.

[8] Woolhandler, et. al., "Administrative Costs in U.S. Hospitals," p. 401.

[9] Woolhandler and Himmelstein, "Socialized Medicine is Good Business."

[10] GAO, "Canadian Health Insurance: Lessons for the United States," p. 63.

[11] GAO, Canadian Health Insurance: Lessons for the United States, pp. 53-61, 83.

[12] R. H. Brook, J.E. Ware, Jr., W. H. Rogers, et. al., "Does Free Care Improve Adults' Health? Results From a Randomized Controlled Trial," New England Journal Medicine 309 (1983): 1426-1434. See also J.P. Newhouse, W.G. Manning, C.N. Morris, et. al., "Some Interim Results from a Controlled Trial of Cost Sharing in Health Insurance," New England Journal of Medicine 305 (1981): 1501-07; E.B. Keeler, R.H. Brook, G. A. Goldberg, et. al., "How Free Care Reduced Hypertension in the Health Insurance Experiment," Journal of the American Medical Association 254 (1985): 1926-31.

[13] J. Hadley, More Medical Care, Better Health? (Washington: The Urban Institute, 1982).

[14] R.M.Ball and T.N.Bethell, Because We're All In This Together: The Case For A National Long-Term Care Insurance Policy. (Washington: Families U.S.A. Foundation, l989); J. Firman, W. Weissert, and C.E.Wilson, Private Long-Term Care Insurance: How Well Is It Meeting Consumer Needs and Public Policy Concerns? (Washington: United Seniors Health Cooperative, 1988); C.L. Estes, Long Term Care: Requiem for Commercial Private Insurance. (San Francisco: Institute for Health and Aging, 1990).

[15] K. Liu, K.G. Manton, B.M.Liu, "Home Care Expenses for the Disabled Elderly," Health Care Review 7 (1985): 51-57; R. Stone R, G.L. Cafferata, J. Sangl, "Caregivers of the Frail Elderly: A National Profile," Gerontologist, 27 (1987): 616-626; U.S. Senate. Developments in Aging (Washington: GPO, 1989); United States Senate, A Report of the Special Committee on Aging, (Washington: GPO, 1989); R. Stone, Aging in the Eighties: Age 65 years and Over--Use of Community Services (NCHS Advance Data, 1986)

[16] K. Liu et al., "Home Care Expenses for the Disabled Elderly."

[17] R.L. Associates, The American Public Views Long Term Care; Louis Harris, Majorities Favor Passage of Long-term Health Care Legislation (New York: Louis Harris & Associates, March 13, 1988)

[18] US. Bipartisan Commission on Comprehensive Health Care, A Call for Action: Final Report (Washington, September 1990); A. M. Rivlin and J.M. Weiner, Caring for the Disabled Elderly: Who Will Pay? (Washington: Brookings Institution, 1988).

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